If there were no shielded rooms, people would be exposed to radioactive materials, especially radioactive sources that are more radioactive. Let me explain to you the basic situation and hazards of ionizing radiation.
Ionizing radiation is the general term for all radiation that can cause the ionization of matter. There are many types of it. High-speed charged particles include alpha particles, beta particles, and protons. Uncharged particles include neutrons, X-rays, and gamma rays.
1. The harm of ionizing radiation In the work of exposure to ionizing radiation, if the protective measures are improper, the human body's exposure dose exceeds a certain limit, then harmful effects can occur. Under the action of electric radiation, the body's response degree depends on the type of ionizing radiation, the dose, the irradiation conditions and the body's sensitivity.
Ionizing radiation can cause radiation sickness, which is a systemic reaction of the body. Almost all organs and systems have pathological changes, but the changes in the nervous system, hematopoietic organs and digestive system are the most obvious. The damage of ionizing radiation to the body can be divided into acute radiation injury and chronic radiation injury. Receiving a certain dose of radiation in a short period of time can cause acute damage to the body, which is usually seen in nuclear accidents and radiotherapy patients. However, receiving a certain dose of radiation over a long period of time can cause chronic radiation damage, such as skin damage, hematopoietic disorders, leukopenia, and impaired fertility. In addition, radiation can also cause cancer and cause fetal death and deformity.
Two, the three principles of protection time protection, distance protection, shielding protection
1. Time protection: No matter what kind of exposure, the cumulative dose of human exposure is proportional to the exposure time. The longer the exposure to radiation, the more serious the radiation hazard. Minimize the time spent on radioactive work in order to achieve the purpose of reducing the exposure dose.
2. Distance protection: The radiation dose rate at a certain place is inversely proportional to the square of the distance from the radioactive source. The greater the distance from the radioactive source, the smaller the dose rate at that place. So stay away from radioactive sources as much as possible during work. To achieve the purpose of protection.
3. Shielding protection: is to set up a protective barrier between the person and the radioactive source. Because the rays pass through substances with high atomic number, they are generally shielded by shielding equipment such as shielded computer rooms, and the radiation that is harmful to the human body is directly isolated.
The emergence of shielded rooms has greatly reduced the harm caused by radioactive materials to the crowd. It is also a major advancement in science.